Why is digitally accessible content important?
 Inclusive for all students and a legal requirement.
 It allows students to use screen readers (which need to be accessible for equations and symbols to make sense):
 supporting readers with visual impairment access the content
 supporting literacy (e.g. students with English as a second language)
 to reduce cognitive load in a body of text (e.g. dyslexia, dyspraxia).
 It allows readers to easily navigate and jump to different sections, which also supports students with motor difficulties and issues around working memory (e.g. dyslexia, dyspraxia, mental health issues).
 It allows zoomingin and viewing on smaller screen (Tablets, Phones) with the content reflowing. This can support readers with motor difficulties (avoid scrolling) or needing a larger font size.
 Publishing digitally can also support other media types, e.g. videos, interactive graphs, etc. in addition to external hyperlinks.
What does "accessible" mean for technical content?
There are many different aspects to making content accessible, which are covered in our main guidance and also resources for inclusive teaching. The additional physical accessibility challenges relating to technical disciplines (particularly STEM) are:
 Lossy formats for maths content. For example, the structure/semantics of equations is not accessible for a pdf produced using LaTeX to a visually impaired student.
 Inadequate encoding of content: For example, superscripts typed outside the maths environment may not be conveyed to a screen reader.
 Unable to interact with the material. For example, missing or inadequate descriptions (alt text) to fully access the information contained in a diagram.
 LaTeX rendering equations to pdf does not support readers who rely on assistive technology (such as a screen reader, Braille) to access the document. Even if the individual characters can be read (not images), the semantics of equations is often lost.
 Typesetting to an A4 page doesn't support students who are viewing the document on a mobile device or need to zoom in and want the text to reflow.
 Although there is document structure in LaTeX (e.g. \section{}, \subsection{}, etc), these tags are not normally written when creating a PDF).
 LaTeX is Turing Complete: you can program with it as these examples, calculating the Fibonacci Sequence or controlling a Mars Rover, demonstrate! Given the open ended scope, it is nontrivial to transform LaTeX documents to make alternative formats (e.g. large print, screen readable, Braille formats, etc) to support all students, even with the use of "LaTeX conversion tools" (e.g. Pandoc, Tex4ht, MathAltNotes).
 For a more detailed discussion, please see LaTeX is NOT Easy: Creating Accessible Scientific Documents with R Markdown (Seo 2019).
What works?
There needs to be adequate provision for all readers to engage with all content, including images, diagrams, plots, etc. In some cases this requires using another method of interacting with the content: for example having adequate alternative text supporting a figure.
To make the maths content is physically accessible there are two main routes to authoring a document:
 produce the document with Microsoft Equation Editor (which supports Word and Powerpoint).
 create the document as an html webpage with the maths rendered using MathJax. There are different routes to achieving this, with the simplest being to use Rmarkdown or write maths equations directly into Moodle (both support LaTeXlike maths entry).
In the following links you will find support and guidance on how to create accessible maths documents:
Resource  Who is this for?  Advantages  Disadvantages 
Microsoft Equation Editor Guidance  Word & Powerpoint users 


RMarkdown Guidance  LaTeX users 


The MathJax plugin developed by American Mathematical Society (AMS) gives highquality display of LaTeX maths and MathML math notation in HTML pages (MathML is a verbose markup language, also used in Microsoft Office). This lets formulae be read clearly for assistive technologies (e.g. screen readers), with no plugins, extra fonts, or special setup for users.
Themes
 Accessibility
Guidance
Accessible maths with Microsoft Equation Editor Guidance
Accessible maths with RMarkdown Guidance
Accessible maths with Moodle Guidance
UK Professional Skills Framework
Contacts
For advice on implementing this guidance to enhance learning, teaching and assessment contact the TEL team: tel@bath.ac.uk